Global value chain for bicycle manufacturing
Paul Krugman's e-letter today discusses global value chains and a more modern "industrial policy" in the context of the once forecasted superiority of Japan in the late 1980s, their later economic stagnation--although he points out that weighted for demographics, Japan's manufacturing production is comparable to that of the US--Trump policies, Biden policies, etc.
He mentions a report by the World Bank, World Development Report 2020: Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains, and how it uses bicycle manufacturing as a way to illustrate global production chains.
When I was involved in bidding for bike sharing programs c. 2010-2012, this was an issue. Many of the programs used federal money, and the American Recovery and Reconstruction Act required "Buy American" when it came to steel products. Given that bicycles aren't manufactured in volume in the US any more, this was an impossible provision to meet.