The Economics Associated with Outdoor Recreation, Natural Resources Conservation and Historic Preservation in the United States
Study by Southwick Associates for the National Fish and Wildlife Federation. From the summary:
Nationally, the federal tax credits returned more than $22.3 billion in federal tax dollars since 1978 on $17.5 billion in tax credits – a return of 27.4% from every dollar invested.
Economic activity resulting from federal historic preservation tax credits supports 61,200 jobs, $6.6 billion in economic activity and generated $935 million in tax revenues.
Every million dollars invested in residential historic rehabilitation generates approximately 36 jobs, $1.24 million in income and nearly $200,000 in state and local taxes.
Properties in historic districts have increased values, generally around 20% higher than other similar properties elsewhere.
Outdoor recreation alone accounts for $730 billion a year, 6.44 million jobs and $88 billion a year in tax revenues, the report says. The figures include hunting, fishing, wildlife viewing, hiking, camping, skiing, paddle sports, bicycling and motorized boating but not motorized recreation such as motorcycles, off-road vehicles and snowmobiles.
The value that ecosystem services provided by natural habitat in the lower 48 states is $1.6 trillion annually, the report says. Homeowners near parks and protected areas have property values about 20 percent more than similar properties elsewhere.
One study found that “visitors to National Parks spent $12.56 billion in ‘gateway’ areas adjacent to the parks and more than 56 percent of the total spending was by visitors who stayed outside the parks,” the report says. “Nationally this visitor activity ac-counted for 247,000 jobs, $9.66 billion in labor income and $16.46 billion in value added.
The local impact across parks amounted to direct and secondary effects of 149,500 jobs, $4.56 billion in labor income and $7.74 billion in value added.”